Mechanisms of tumour-induced cachexia. by Helen Dawn Mulligan

Cover of: Mechanisms of tumour-induced cachexia. | Helen Dawn Mulligan

Published by Aston University. Department of Pharmaceutical Science in Birmingham .

Written in English

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Thesis (PhD) - Aston University, 1991.

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Open LibraryOL13907557M

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Cachexia is a multifactorial process of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue atrophy resulting in progressive weight loss. It is associated with poor quality of life, poor physical function, and poor prognosis in cancer patients.

It involves multiple pathways: procachectic and proinflammatory signals from tumour cells, systemic inflammation in the host, and widespread metabolic Cited by:   Patients with metastatic cancer experience a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass and function known as cachexia.

Cachexia is associated with poor prognosis and accelerated death in patients with Cited by:   Metabolic Changes. The metabolic changes found in cachexia resemble those of infection rather than starvation [] and are multifactorial and loss of cancer cachexia is due to loss of both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue mass, whereas weight loss is mainly from adipose tissue stores in starvation [].In cachexia there is an increase in muscle Cited by: Cachexia is a multifactorial process of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue atrophy resulting in progressive weight loss.

It is associated with poor quality of life, poor physical function, and. Cancer cachexia is a debilitating consequence of disease progression, characterised by the significant weight loss through the catabolism of both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, leading to a reduced mobility and muscle function, fatigue, impaired quality of life and ultimately death occurring with 25–30 % total body weight by:   Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced. Introduction. Cancer cachexia is characterised by a chronic wasting syndrome, involving loss of both adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM), 1 which is resistant to conventional nutritional support.

2 Cachexia occurs in up to one half of all patients diagnosed with cancer, 3 and represents a significant physical and psychological burden. The typical patient with advanced Cited by: Over the past 10 years, there have been major advances in the understanding of cancer cachexia and asthenia.

These common complications of cancer are now thought to be the consequences of complex interactions between host, tumour, and psychosocial factors. Cachexia and asthenia commonly coexist, but they can occur independently of each other.

Recently identified tumour Cited by: Thus, different mechanisms appear to be at work in cancer patients compared with those suffering from starvation. Mechanisms of cachexia Energy intake. Nutritional intake has been shown to be substantially reduced in weight-losing cancer patients.

A reduction in food intake is certainly a major cause of weight loss in the majority of. Background: Dietary supplementation with leucine and fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has previously been shown to reduce cachexia-related outcomes in C26 tumour-bearing mice.

To further explore associated processes and mechanisms we investigated changes in plasma Ca2+ levels, the involvement Author: Rogier L.C. Plas, Mieke Poland, Joyce Faber, Josep Argilès, Miriam van Dijk, Alessandro Laviano, Joc.

Cachexia is a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle tissues that leads to profound weight loss and frailty. About half of all cancer patients suffer from cachexia, which impairs quality.

Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a highly prevalent symptom experienced by cancer patients. It is debilitating and has a significant impact on one’s physical, mental and social wellbeing.

Currently, the ambiguities surrounding CRF have made the standardization of diagnostic and treatment methods : Yipeng Zhang, Tina Y. Tang, Sureka Pavalagantharajah, Caroline N.

Gobran, Zeinab Khawaja, Allison J. Finally, according to a study in a murine tumour-induced cachexia model (MAC16 tumours), KDs could help prevent the loss of fat and non-fat body mass in patients with cancer CR reduced tumorigenesis in genetic mouse cancer models, mouse models with spontaneous tumorigenesis and carcinogen induced cancer mouse models, as well as in monkeys A multifactorial anti-cachectic approach for cancer cachexia in a rat model undergoing chemotherapy Míriam Toledo1, Fabio Penna1, Francesc Oliva3, Melania Luque1, Angelica Betancourt1, Enrica Marmonti1, Francisco J.

López-Soriano1,2, Josep M. Argilés1,2 & Sílvia Busquets1,2* 1Cancer Research Group, Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular.

accompanied by inadequate nutritional intake.1 Cachexia is classified as either primary or secondary, depending on its cause. Primary cachexia is principally caused by a tumour-induced chronic inflammation involving aberrant cytokine and prostaglandin activation.

Consequences include anorexia and poor food intake mediated through the effect cANcer. His main research interest is cancer cachexia.

His research group aims to identify mechanisms underlying tumour-induced metabolic disturbances in cancer patients. Deep clinical phenotyping of cachexia-related parameters in patients is integrated with experimental data from tumour organoid models.

Machado AP, Costa Rosa LF, Seelaender MC. Adipose tissue in walker tumour-induced cachexia: possible association between decreased leptin concentration and mononuclear cell infiltration. Cell Tissue Res ;– Crossref Google ScholarCited by: Evidence that tumor necrosis factor plays a pathogenic role in the paraneoplastic syndrome of cachexia, hypercalcaemia and leukocytosis in a human tumor in Author: Jayesh Desai, Michelle Gold, Sonia Fullerton, Jonathan Cebon.

Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines.

Each of these factors alters the nutritional Cited by: Abstract. Bearing in mind that cancer cachexia is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and that endurance training has been adopted as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory strategy, we examined the effect of 8 weeks of moderate intensity exercise upon the balance of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in 2 different depots of white adipose tissue in cachectic Cited by: the protein breakdown seen in tumour-induced cachexia in rats Although the changes in body composition produced by these agents have not been shown to enhance athletic performance, it is not surprising that these agents are misused in racehorses and greyhounds and their use banned by racing authorities Other factorsCited by: 7.

Among the specific causes of CACS, there is evidence of a chronic, low-grade, tumour-induced activation of the host immune system that shares numerous characteristics with the acute-phase response found after major traumatic events and septic shock.

The latter is characterised by an increased production of cytoki 28 high levels of /5. Skeletal muscle wasting is a major component of cachectic states found in a variety of disease settings, including cancer.

As increasing caloric intake often provides little benefit in combating muscle loss in cachectic patients, a major research focus has been to develop strategies stimulating muscle anabolic pathways - in an attempt to fight the catabolic. Inthe International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a ‘hyperandrogenism’ rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport.

This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not Cited by: 7. Therefore, MSJZT could effectively maintain the body weight of tumour-bearing mice and improve their appetite and, thus, may enhance their ability to resist tumour-induced cachexia.

Throughout the whole experimental period, the tumour grew rapidly in the model group, and eventually the average tumour volume reached mm 3, while in the Author: Shanshan Nie, Yuhang Zhao, Xinjian Qiu, Wenbo Wang, Ye Yao, Min Yi, Dongsheng Wang.

The term sarcopenia refers to the loss of muscle mass that occurs with ageing. On the basis of study results showing that muscle mass is only moderately related to functional outcomes, international working groups have proposed that loss of muscle strength or physical function should also be included in the definition.

Irrespective of how sarcopenia is defined, both low Cited by: Catabolic factors in tumour-induced cachexia. PHD thesis, Aston University.

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Normal serum concentrations of total calcium generally range between and mg/dL ( to mM) and ionized calcium between mg/dL ( mM). Lung cancer is the #1 cancer killer in the United States today.

Lung cancer kills more people than breast, cervical, colon, and prostate cancer combined, and does not generally show any symptoms until its late stages. Where lung cancer starts To understand lung cancer, we must first understand the lungs. – CPD Educational Events /17 BTOG Cachexia Study Day Definition, clinical implications and treatment Friday 25 November Wellcome Collection, Euston.

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14 Small Animal Oncology plete comparative chromosome map for the dog, red fox and human and its integration with canine genetic maps. ELUCIDATING INFLAMMATORY MEDITATED MECHANISMS OF INTRINSIC AND ACQUIRED CHEMO-RESISTANCE IN NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER Anne-Marie Baird1,2, Sarah-Louise Ryan1,3, Peter Godwin2, Susan Heavey2, Kazuo Umezawa4, Martin Barr2, Steven Gray2, Anthony Davies3, Derek Richard1, Kathy Gately2, Kenneth J.

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Geisler F, Storr M, Fritsch R, Rosch T, Classen M, Allescher HD. Endoscopic treatment of a Zenker's diverticulum using argon plasma coagulation in a patient with massive cachexia and esophageal obstruction: a case report and review of literature. Dis-Esophagus ; Lawrence DR, Moxon RE, Fountain SW, Ohri SK, Townsend ER.

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